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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section C】
试题内容

   When anti-globalization protesters took to the streets of Washington last weekend, they blamed globalization for everything from hunger to the destruction of home-grown cultures. And globalization 
meant the United States. The critics call it Coca-Colonization, and French sheep farmer Jose Bove has become a cult (狂热分子) figure since destroying a McDonald's restaurant in 1999. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, globalization is neither homogenizing (是……同化) nor Americanizing the cultures of the world. 
    To understand why not, we have to step back and put the current period in a larger historical perspective. Although they are related, the long-term historical trends of globalization and modernization are! not the same. While modernization has produced some common traits, such as large cities, factories and mass communications, local cultures have by no means been erased. The appearance of similar institutions in response to similar problems is not surprising, but it does not lead to homogeneity. In the first half of the 20th century, for example, there were some similarities among the industrial societies of Britain, Germany, America and Japan, but there were even more important differences. When China,India and Brazil complete their current processes of industrialization and modernization, we should not expect them to be exact copies of Japan, Germany or the United States. 
    Take the current information revolution as an example. The United States is at the forefront of this great movement of change, so the uniform social and cultural habits produced by television viewing or Internet use, for instance, are often attributed to Americanization. But correlation is not cause. Since the United States does exist and is at the leading edge of the information revolution, there is a degree of Americanization at present, but it is likely to decrease over the course of the 21st century as technology spreads and local cultures modernize in their own ways. 
    Historical proof that globalization does not necessarily mean homogenization can be seen in the case of Japan. In the mid-19th century, it became the first Asian country to embrace globalization and to borrow successfully from the world without losing its uniqueness. Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Japan searched broadly for tools and innovations that would allow it to become a major power rather than a victim of Western imperialism. The lesson that Japan has to teach the rest of the world is that even a century and a half of openness to global trends does not necessarily assure destruction of a country's separate cultural identity. 

1.[单选题]Japan is mentioned in the passage to show that _____________.
  • A.penness to globalization will not cost a nation's cultural identity
  • B.it was the first Asian country to develop successfully
  • C.the Meiji Restoration of 1868 was crucial in Japan's history
  • D.tools and innovations would allow a country to become a major power
  • 解题思路:由题干关键词Japan定位到最后一段首句。 推理判断题。全球化并不意味着同一化,就是本段论点,后面的例子也是为了对此做进一步说明,因此A正确。
2.[单选题]The author admits that a degree of Americanization does exist because___________.
  • A.it is a long-term historical trend of the world
  • B.industrial societies are almost exact copies of the United States
  • C.the Internet and TV promote the spread of American social and cultural habits
  • D.local cultures are gradually weakened over the course of the 21st century
  • 解题思路:由题干关键词degree of Americanization定位到第三段末句。 事实细节题。这句话讲的是这种程度将会减弱,所以答案在该段第二句中给出,美国走在这种变革的前沿,因此由电视和因特网所带来的同一社会和文化习惯是美国化的原因,所以C正确。
3.[单选题]From the passage we can conclude that the author is strongly in defense of___________.
  • A.Americanization
  • B.globalization
  • C.information revolution
  • D.modernization
  • 解题思路:由题干可知,本题应结合全文进行分析判断。 主旨大意题。本题是问作者为什么辩护。通读全文可以发现,第一段作者提出全球化既不能让世界文化同化,也不能使之美国化;第二段指出全球化和现代化的历史趋势是不同的。现代化不能消除当地文化,表面的相似不能导致同一性,故B正确。
4.[单选题]The author mentions world history to prove that modernization___________.
  • A.does not result in homogeneity of local cultures
  • B.is somewhat related to globalization
  • C.is one of the long-term historical trends
  • D.has shaped different traits in industrial countries
  • 解题思路:由题干关键词history和modernization定位到第二段第二句。 事实细节题。虽然它们之间有联系,但全球化和现代化的历史趋势是不同的。因此B正确,即为了证明现代化和全球化相关。另外,somewhat使语义避免绝对化,是正确选项特征之一。A与文意相反,第二段第三句提到:虽然现代化已经导致了相同的特点,当地文化决不能被消除;C是文中事实,但不是目的;D说法不全面,因为现代化不仅形成了工业国家的不同点,也有相同特点。
5.[单选题]The author's main purpose in writing this passage is to _______________.
  • A.report the progress of some new events
  • B.criticize extreme and violent actions
  • C.recall a certain period of American history
  • D.tell his readers not to be afraid of globalization
  • 解题思路:由题干可知,本题应结合全文进行分析判断。 主旨大意题。一般情况下,议论文的论点在首段或末段,又因为第二段句首To understand why not…是对上文内容的阐述,因此将中心句定位到第一段段末可知,全球化既不能同化世界文化,也不能使世界文化美国化。全文都是在论述这一观点,其目的就是告诉人们不要惧怕全球化,因此D正确。A在文中未提及;B与文意不符,因为作者只在第一段提到反对者的游行,但并没有对其进行批判;C的内容是在第二段段末提到的例子,是为了说明全球化并不会导致同质。
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  • 参考答案:A,C,B,B,D
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