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    USC researchers have shown that when we're tired or stressed, we're just as likely tohit the gym or turn to other positive habits as we are to pop open a coke or commit someother acts of self-sabotage.
    Led by USC Professor Wendy Wood and David Neal, a former assistant psychologyprofessor at USC, the research shows that lack of control doesn't automatically meanindulgence or hedonism ( 享乐 ) --it's the underlying routine that matters, for better orworse. "When we try to change our behavior, we strategize about our motivation andself-control. But what we should be thinking about instead is how to set up new habits.
    Habits persist even when we're tired and don't have the energy to exert self-control," saidWood. Wood is one of the world's leading experts on habit, the automatic behaviors thatmake it possible for us to function every day. Learned habits also play a big role in ourhealth; research has shown that lack of exercise, overeating and smoking are significantrisk factors for major diseases. Indeed, obesity and smoking are the two primary reasonsAmericans die before people in other high-income countries, according to a recentNational Academy of Sciences report led by Professor Eileen Crimmins, holder of theAARP Chair in Gerontology.
    But while most disease prevention efforts focus on self-control, the latest researchfrom Wood shows that the best way to prevent diseases might be knowing how to letgo. In one experiment Wood and her co-investigators followed students for a semester,including during exams. They found that during testing periods, when students werestressed and sleep-deprived, they were even more likely to stick to old habits. It was as ifthey didn't have the energy to do something new, Wood explained.
    Students who ate unhealthy breakfasts during the semester, such as pastries ordoughnuts (甜甜圈), ate even more of the junk food during exams. But the same wastrue of oatmeal ( 燕麦) eaters: Those in the habit of eating a healthy breakfast were alsomore likely to stick to routine and ate especially well in the morning when under pressure.
    "You might expect that when students were stressed and had little time, they wouldn'tread the paper at all, but instead they fell back on their reading habits," Wood said. "Habitsdon't require much willpower and thought and deliberation."
    Wood continued: "So, the central question for behavior change efforts should be,how can you form healthy, productive habits? What we know about habit formation isthat you want to make the behavior easy to perform, so that people repeat it often and itbecomes part of their daily routine."
1.[单选题]What does the research tell us about self-control?
  • A.We should strategize about our self-control to change our behavior.
  • B.Lack of self-control means indulgence or hedonism.
  • C.We should control ourselves to prevent diseases.
  • D.Self-control is not the central question for behavior change.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的the research tell US about self-control定位到原文第二、三段。 第二段中提到,缺乏控制力并不一定意味着放纵或享乐,当我们试图改变自己的行为时,我们制定的战略是提高自己的积极性和自我控制能力。但是,我们应该思考的是如何形成新习惯。第三段中提到,尽管大部分人都通过加强自控能力来预防疾病,然而伍德的最新调查显示,预防疾病的最好方法是知道如何释放。由此可知,自控并不是行为改变的核心问题,故选D。
2.[单选题]What do the researchers find about the students in the research?
  • A.When tired and stressed, students fell back to bad habits.
  • B.When tired and stressed, students lost their old habits.
  • C.When tired and stressed, students stuck to their habits, both good and bad ones.
  • D.when tired and stressed, students formed new habits.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的the researchers find about the students in the research定位到原文第四段。该段中指出,一些学生在整个学期都吃不健康的早餐,例如点心或甜甜圈,他们在考试期间甚至会吃更多的垃圾食品。但是,这同样也适用于吃燕麦片的学生:有吃健康早餐习惯的学生在压力下也更有可能坚持之前的习惯,早餐吃得特别好。由此可知,当学生疲惫或有压力时,他们会坚持自己的习惯,不管是好的还是坏的。
3.[单选题]What is the best way to prevent diseases according to Wood?
  • A.Know how to let go.
  • B.Enhance the ability of self-control.
  • C.Take more exercise.
  • D.Be more optimistic.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的the best way to prevent diseases according to Wood定位到原文第三段。该段中提到,尽管大部分人都通过加强自控能力来预防疾病,然而伍德的最新调查显示,预防疾病的最好方法是知道如何释放。由此可知,四个选项中只有A项符合原文,故选A。
4.[单选题]What are the primary reasons Americans die before people in other high-income countries?
  • A.Lack of exercise and smoking.
  • B.Obesity and smoking.
  • C.Lack of exercise and obesity.
  • D.Overeating and obesity.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的the primary reasons Americans die before people in otherhigh-income countries定位到原文第二段。该段末句提到,实际上,根据美国退休者协会老年医学研究会的主席艾琳·克里明斯教授近期领导的国家科学院调查所示,肥胖和吸烟是美国人比其他高收入国家的人寿命短的两大主要因素。由此可知,四个选项中只有B项符合原文,故选B。
5.[单选题]What should we do to change our behavior according to Wood?
  • A.We should learn to control our actions.
  • B.We should learn from others.
  • C.We should form healthy and productive habits.
  • D.We should regulate our actions.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的we do to change our behavior according to Wood定位到原文最后一段。该段中指出,伍德认为,改变人们行为的核心是如何形成健康有益的习惯。由此可知,四个选项中只有C项符合原文,故选C。
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  • 参考答案:D,C,A,B,C
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