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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
A Nice Cup of TeaThe Legendary Origins of TeaA) The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According to legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and lover of the arts. One summer day white visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. The servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the nearby bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created.
The Chinese Influence
B) Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea, the Ch’a Ching. This amazing man was an orphan and raised by scholarly Buddhist monks in one of China’s finest monasteries. However, as a young man, he rebelled against the discipline of priestly training which had made him a skilled observer. His fame as a performer increased with each year, but he felt his life lacked meaning. Finally, in mid-life, he retired for five years into seclusion. Drawing from his vast memory of observed events and places, he codified (整理,编撰) the various methods of tea cultivation and preparation in ancient China. The vast definitive nature of his work, projected him into near sainthood within his own lifetime. Patronized by the Emperor himself, his work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries would later introduce to imperial Japan.
Europe Learns of Tea
C) While tea was at this high level of development in both Japan and China, information concerning this then unknown beverage began to filter back to Europe. Earlier caravan leaders had mentioned it, but were unclear as to its service format or appearance. (One reference suggests the leaves be boiled, salted, buttered, and eaten!) The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. Portugal, with her technologically advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. It was as a missionary on that first commercial mission that Father de Cruz had tasted tea four years before. The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon, and then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic countries. (At that time Holland was politically affiliated with Portugal. When this alliance was altered in 1602, Holland, with her excellent navy, entered into full Pacific trade in her own right.)
Tea Arrives in England
D) Great Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. This was due in part to the unsteady ascension to the throne of the Stuarts and the Cromwellian Civil War. The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and 1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale as the national drink of England. As in Holland, it was the nobility that provided the necessary stamp of approval and so insured its acceptance. King Charles Ⅱ had married, while in exile, the Portuguese Infanta Catherine de Braganza (1662).Charles himself had grown up in the Dutch capital. As a result, both he and his Portuguese bride were confirmed tea drinkers. When the monarchy was re-established, the two rulers brought this foreign tea tradition to England with them. As early as 1600 Elizabeth I had founded the John Company for the purpose of promoting Asian trade. When Catherine de Braganza married Charles she brought as part of her dowry the territories of Tangier and Bombay. Suddenly, the Jone Company had a base of operations.
Afternoon Tea in England
E) Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland. Tea importation rose from 40,000 pounds in 1699 to an annual average of 240,000 pounds by 1708. Tea was drunk by all levels of society. Prior to the introduction of tea into Britain, the English had two main meals—breakfast and dinner. Breakfast was ale, bread and beef. Dinner was a long, massive meal at the end of the day. It was no wonder that Anna, the Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861) experienced a “sinking feeling” in the late afternoon. Adopting the European tea service format, she invited friends to join her for an additional afternoon meal at five o’clock., in her rooms at Belvoir Castle. The menu centered around small cakes, bread and butter sandwiches, assorted sweets, and, of course, tea. 
F) This summer practice proved so popular, the Duchess continued it when she returned to London, sending cards to her friends asking them to join her for “tea and a walking the fields.”(London at that time still contained large open meadows within the city.) The practice of inviting friends to come for tea in the afternoon was quickly picked up by other social hostesses. A common pattern of service soon merged. The first pot of tea was made in the kitchen and carried to the lady of the house who waited with her invited guests, surrounded by fine porcelain from China. The first pot was warmed by the hostess from a second pot (usually silver) that was kept heated over a small flame. Food and tea was then passed among the guests, the main purpose of the visiting being conversation.
Tea Cuisine
G) Tea cuisine quickly expanded in range to quickly include wafer thin crustless sandwiches, shrimp or fish paste, toasted breads with jams, and regional British pastries such as scones (Scottish) and crumpets (English). At this time two distinct forms of tea services evolved: “High” and “Low”. “Low” Tea (served in the low part of the afternoon) was served in aristocratic homes of the wealthy and featured small delicious food rather than solid meals. The emphasis was on presentation and conversation. “High” Tea or “Meat Tea” was the main or “High” meal of the day. It was the major meal of the middle and lower classes and consisted of mostly full dinner items such as roast beef, mashed potatoes, peas, and of. course, tea.
Coffee Houses
H) Tea was the major beverage served in the coffee houses, but they were so named because coffee arrived in England some years before tea. Exclusively for men, they were called “Penny Universities” because for a penny any man could obtain a pot of tea, a copy of the newspaper, and engage in conversation with the sharpest wits of the day. The various houses specialized in selected areas of interest, some serving attorneys, some authors, others the military. They were the forerunner of the English gentlemen’s private club. One such beverage house was owned by Edward Lloyd and was favored by shipowners, merchants and marine insurers. That simple shop was the origin of Lloyd’s, the worldwide insurance firm. Attempts to close the coffee houses were made throughout the eighteenth century because of the free speech they encouraged, but such measures proved so unpopular they were always quickly revoked.
Tea Gardens
I) Experiencing the Dutch “tavern garden teas”, the English developed the idea of Tea Gardens. Here ladies and gentlemen took their tea out of doors surrounded by entertainment such as orchestras, hidden arbors, flowered walks, bowling greens, concerts, gambling, or fireworks at night. It was at just such a Tea Garden that Lord Nelson, who defeated Napoleon by sea, met the great love of his life, Emma, later Lady Hamilton. Women were permitted to enter a mixed, public gathering for the first time without social criticism. As the gardens were public, British society mixed here freely for the first time, cutting across lines of class and birth.
1.[选词填空]Aristocratic and wealthy people provided a tea service called “Low”tea in the afternoon.
    • 解题思路:由题干Aristocratic and wealthy people定位到G段。本段提到“Low” tea是供贵族富人们享用的下午茶。故匹配段落为G段
    2.[选词填空]Throughout the eighteenth century, coffee houses were once forced to close because they encouraged the free speech.
      • 解题思路:由题干定位到H段。本段提到十八世纪时,咖啡店曾被强令关门,因为那儿鼓励言论自由。故匹配段落为H段。
      3.[选词填空]When Lu Yu was a child, he was greatly influenced by the Buddhist philosophy.
        • 解题思路:由题干的Lu Yu和influenced by定位到B段的最后两句。文中提到Lu Yu的作品明显地表现出Zen Buddhist的哲理,说明佛教对他的影响是巨大的,故匹配段落为B段。
        4.[选词填空]The first European who wrote about tea was a Portuguese palest.
          • 解题思路:由题干可定位到C段。文中讲到在欧洲第一个接触茶并描写茶的是Portuguese Jesuit Father,Father指的是“神父”, 故匹配段落为C段。
          5.[选词填空]According to Chinese legend, it was Shen Nung who first discovered tea.
            • 解题思路:由题干关键词legend和first定位到A段的最后两句。文中提到the Emperor首先发现了茶,再根据前文对的介绍可知Shen Nung就是Emperor,故匹配段落为A段。
            6.[选词填空]Before tea was shipped to England, its national drink was ale.
              • 解题思路:由题干可定位到D段。原文该句讲到在茶还未传入英国之前,麦芽啤酒是国饮。故匹配段落为D段。
              7.[选词填空]In order to improve Asian trade, Queen Elizabeth I established the John Company.
                • 解题思路:由题干的Queen Elizabeth I可定位到D段。此处讲到Elizabeth I成立the John Company是为了促进亚洲贸易,故匹配段落为D段。
                8.[选词填空]Holland transported tea to the whole Pacific area in the year 1602.
                  • 解题思路:由题干的1602定位到C段的最后两句。文中提到1602年,荷兰的茶叶交易对象从之前有限的几个国家拓展到整个太平洋,故匹配段落为C段。
                  9.[选词填空]Anna, the Duchess of Bedford began to arrange an additional afternoon meal when she lived at Belvoir Castle.
                    • 解题思路:由题干定位到E段。文中提到Anna邀请她的朋友到Belvoir Castle去喝下午茶,故匹配段落为E段。
                    10.[选词填空]Lord Nelson met Emma, his great love of life, at a Tea Garden.
                      • 解题思路:由题干定位到I段。由文中的强调句可知Nelson和Emma是在a Tea Garden相遇的。故匹配段落为I段。
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                      • 参考答案:G,H,B,C,A,D,D,C,E,I
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