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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
Is It Worth Eating an Organic Diet?[A] Sales of organic food have been rising steadily over the past decade, reaching almost $30billion in 2011, or 4.2% of all U.S. food and beverage (饮料) sales, according to the OrganicTrade Association. Many of the consumers who purchase these products say paying morefor organic produce, milk and meat is a trade-off(权衡) they are willing to make in order toavoid exposure to chemical pesticides and fertilizers and milk from cows given bovine growthhormone (牛生长激素). Some experts say common sense should tell us that food grownwithout the help of synthetic chemicals is probably safer and healthier to consume than foodcontaining those substances, even in trace amounts. They believe Americans should try tosubstitute organic products for conventional ones whenever possible.
[B] However, other families, especially those whose food budgets may be more limited wonder iforganic food is really worth its hefty (异常大的) price tag. Other experts point out that thereisn't enough scientific evidence to say for sure that eating organic food leads to better health.As such, they say the most important dietary advice they can give Americans is to eat morefresh fruit and vegetables and less processed food.
[C] Alex Leo, associate professor of environmental exposure biology at the Harvard School of PublicHealth, argues for eating more organic food. Janet H. Silverstein, a professor of endocrinology (内分泌学) at the University of Florida and a co-author of an American Association of Pediatrics (儿科学) study on the health benefits of an organic diet, takes the skeptic's (怀疑者的) view. So far,researchers haven't been able to provide them with a definitive answer.
[D] Is there definitive scientific proof that an organic diet is healthier? "Not yet," said Leo. Robustscientific studies comparing food grown organically and food grown conventionally don'texist, thanks to a lack of funding for this kind of research. "The lack of definitive evidencecombined with the higher price of organic food has given skeptics a golden opportunity toargue that organic isn't worth the cost and effort," he added.
[E] While studies in recent years have delivered a decidedly mixed message about thehealthfulness of organic food, those on both sides of the debate generally agree that organicproduce typically contains fewer pesticides than conventional produce, and that people maybe able to reduce or eliminate agricultural chemicals from their bodies by adopting an organicdiet. This was illustrated in a study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectivesin 2006. That study, which was led by Leo, showed that within five days of substituting mostlyorganic produce for conventional produce in children's diets, pesticides disappeared from thechildren's urine ( 尿液).
[F] Many say the pesticides found in our food are nothing to fear because the levels fall well belowfederal safety guidelines and thus aren't dangerous. Similarly, they say the bovine growthhormone used to increase cows' milk yield is perfectly safe. But federal guidelines don't take intoaccount what effect repeated exposure to low levels of chemicals might have on humans overtime. And many pesticides were eventually banned or restricted by the federal government afteryears of use when they were discovered to be harmful to the environment or human health.
[G] Pesticides, in particular, are made to kill organisms, and the President's Cancer Panel in 2010made clear that it sees them as a threat, advising Americans to "reduce their cancer risks bychoosing, to the extent possible, food grown without pesticides or chemical fertilizers."
[H] Recent field studies showed that organic produce, such as strawberries, leafy vegetables andwheat, not only tastes better but contains much higher levels of phenolic acids (酚酸) thanconventional produce. Phenolic acids can prevent cellular damage, and offer some protectionagainst oxidative stress ( 氧化应激), inflammation (炎症) and cancer.
[I] Yes, organic food typically costs more and can be harder to find than traditional food, but onecould argue that the price of conventional food is artificially low because of all the subsidiesthat organic farmers don't get and that the government could do more to help organic farmerslower their costs. Nevertheless, when bought in season, organic produce is often comparable inprice to conventional produce.
[J] A good strategy for consumers on limited budgets is to buy the organic versions of foods on theEnvironmental Working Group's "Dirty Dozen" list, as they typically contain the most pesticides.Or, consumers could focus on buying the organic versions of the foods they eat most. Knowingthat we could reduce our exposure to pesticides and increase our exposure to antioxidants ( 抗氧化剂 ) by eating organic food, it makes great common sense to consume more of it.
[K] Organic food is more expensive than conventional offerings, which could make it costprohibitive for families on limited food budgets. Given the lack of data showing that organicfood leads to better health, it would be counterproductive to encourage people to adopt anorganic diet if they end up buying less produce as a result. If families can afford to buyorganic and still put a good amount of healthy food on the table, then the decision aboutwhether to spend the extra money on organic produce, milk and meat should be based on asolid understanding of what we do and don't know about the benefits.
[L] It is difficult to compare the nutritional value of organic versus conventional food because thesoil, climate, timing of harvest, and storage conditions all affect the composition of produce.Still, published studies have found no significant differences in nutritional quality betweenorganic and nonorganic produce or milk. Similarly, there is no evidence that giving bovinegrowth hormone (BGH. to cows changes the composition of milk or affects human health.BGH is inactive in humans and degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach. As forpesticide exposure, the U.S. in 1996 established maximum permissible levels for pesticideresidues (残留) in food to ensure food safety. Many studies have shown that pesticides levels in conventional produce fall well below those guidelines.
[M] While it's true that organic fruits and vegetables in general contain fewer traces of these chemicals,we can't draw conclusions about what that means for health as there haven't been any long-termstudies comparing the relationship between exposure to pesticides from organic versus nonorganicfoods and adverse health outcomes. It may seem like "common sense" to reduce exposure to thesechemicals, but there are currently no good evidence-based studies to answer the question.
[N] While awaiting definitive studies, families on limited budgets who are concerned aboutpesticide exposure can refer to the Environmental Working Group's list of the "Dirty Dozen,"those foods with the highest pesticide residues, and the "Clean 15", the foods with the lowestpesticide concentrations. A good strategy would be to focus on buying organic versions of thefoods on the "Dirty Dozen" listing.
[O] We would like to think that organic food is grown locally, put in a wheelbarrow (独轮手推车) and brought directly to our homes. However, much of it comes from countries whereregulations might not be as tightly enforced as in the U.S., and labeling of the foods mightbe misleading. And just because food is labeled organic doesn't mean it is completely free ofpesticides. Contamination can occur from soil and ground water containing previously usedchemicals, or during transport, processing and storage. Organochlorine insecticides (有机氯杀虫剂) were recently found in organically grown root crops and tomatoes even though thesepesticides haven't been used for 20 years.
1.[选词填空]The Environmental Working Group's lists tell people which food is with the most pesticideresidues and which is with the least.
    • 解题思路:[N]段第1句提到,那些担心接触杀虫剂而预算又有限的家庭可参考环境工作组列出的食品清单。其中提到了两个清单:一个是“Dirty Dozen”,该清单中的食品中杀虫剂残留量最多;另一个是“Clean 15”,该清单中的食品所含杀虫剂浓度则最低。题目是对该句的概括总结。

    Food marked organic may contain pesticides as well.

      • 解题思路:[O]段第3句提到,贴有“有机”字样的食品并不意味着完全不合杀虫剂。接下来的几句进  一步说明,食品可能会因为其土壤或水源曾经使用过杀虫剂而被污染,或在运输途中被污染。题目是对  [O]段第3句的同义转述。 
      3.[选词填空]Many factors make it hard to tell the differences between organic food and traditional food interms of nutrition.
        • 解题思路:[L]段第1句提到,很难把有机食品和传统食品的营养价值进行比较,因为作物生长的土  地、气候、收割时间及存储条件等一系列因素都会影响农产品的成分。题目是对原文的同义转述,其中  的hard对应原文中的difficult,tell the difference对应原文中的compare,many factors是对原文中的the  soil,climate,timing of harvest,and storage conditions的概括。
        4.[选词填空]Federal guidelines do not consider the impact of constant exposure to small amounts ofchemicals on human health.
          • 解题思路:[F]段第3句提到,联邦指导标准却并未考虑反复接触微量的化学物质,久而久之会对人们产生怎样的影响。题目是对该句的同义转述,其中consider对应原文中的take into account,constant对应  原文中的repeated。
          5.[选词填空]Americans, especially those from less wealthy families, are suggested by some experts to eatmore fresh fruit and vegetables rather than processed foods.
            • 解题思路:[B]段开头指出预算有限的家庭会怀疑有机食品是否真的值那么高的价格,然后指出目前也没有足够的证据表明食用有机食品可以更健康。最后一句提到,鉴于此,专家建议多吃新鲜的水果和蔬菜,少吃加工食品。题目是对该句的同义转述。
            6.[选词填空]Janet H. Silverstein is skeptical about the idea of eating more organic food.
              • 解题思路:[C]段第l句提到,哈佛大学公共卫生学院环境暴露生物学副教授亚历克斯·利奥认为应该多吃有机食品,第2句提到佛罗里达州立大学内分泌学教授珍妮特·H.西尔弗斯坦对此持质疑态度.由此可知,珍妮特·H.西尔弗斯坦对是否应该多吃有机食品持怀疑态度。题目是对这两句的概括。
              7.[选词填空]Consensus is reached that agricultural chemicals may be able to reduced or eliminated from ourbodies by adopting an organic diet.
                • 解题思路:[E]段第1句提到,争论的双方大体上都认同有机农产品所含的杀虫剂通常要比传统农产 品少些,而且食用有机食品可能会减少或清除人们体内的农用化学物质。题目是对该句后半句的同义转述。其中consensus is reached对应原文中的generally agree.
                8.[选词填空]If limited in food budget, people can buy seasonal organic vegetables which match withconventional produce in price.
                  • 解题思路:[I]段最后一句提到,如果当季购买的话,有机农产品在价格上常常与传统农产品不相上下.由此可推知,如果预算有限,还想买有机产品的话,人们可以当季购买。题目是对原文的同义转述,其中 的match with对应原文中的comparable。
                  9.[选词填空]People can only afford less food should not be encouraged to adopt an organic diet, especiallywhen there is no solid evidence that proves organic food is better for our health.
                    • 解题思路:[K]段第2句提到,(对预算有限的家庭来说),考虑到没有证据表明食用有机食品能使人 们更健康,如果鼓励人们吃有机食物,从而导致他们最终购买的食物比原来少了,那可能就会适得其反。 即不鼓励预算有限的家庭吃有机食物。题目是对该句的同义转述。
                    10.[选词填空]Some experts argue conventional food should be replaced by organic ones, since it is ourcommon sense that food with even the smallest amount of synthetic chemicals is moredangerous and unhealthy than food without those substances.
                      • 解题思路:[A]段倒数第2句提到,一些专家称,常识告诉我们未添加人工合成化学物质的食品要比添 加了这些化学物质的食品(哪怕是微量的)食用起来更安全、更健康。最后一句说,他们认为,只要有可能,美国人都应该试着用有机产品替代传统产品。题目是对这两句的概括,其中的with even the smallest amount of对应原文中的even in trace amounts。
                      • 参考答案:N,O,L,F,B,C,E,I,K,A
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