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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
Section B
 Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Reform and Medical Costs       [A]Americans are deeply concerned about the relentless rise in health care costs and health insurance premiums. They need to know if reform will help solve the problem. The answer is that no one has an easy fix for rising medical costs. The fundamental fix—reshaping how care is delivered and how doctors are paid in a wasteful, abnormal system—is likely to be achieved only through trial and error and incremental(渐进的)gains.
  [B]The good news is that a bill just approved by the House and a bill approved by the Senate Finance Committee would implement or test many reforms that should help slow the rise in medical costs over the long term. As a report in The New England Journal of Medicine concluded, “Pretty much every proposed innovation found in the health policy literature these days is contained in these measures.”
  [C]Medical spending, which typically rises faster than wages and the overall economy, is propelled by two things: the high prices charged for medical services in this country and the volume of unnecessary care delivered by doctors and hospitals, which often perform a lot more tests and treatments than patient really needs.
  [D]Here are some of the important proposals in the House and Senate bills to try to address those problems, and why it is hard to know how well they will work.
  [E]Both bills would reduce the rate of growth in annual Medicare payments to hospitals, nursing homes and other providers by amounts comparable to the productivity savings routinely made in other industries with the help of new technologies and new ways to organize work. This proposal could save Medicare more than $100 billion over the next decade. If private plans demanded similar productivity savings from providers, and refused to let providers shift additional costs to them, the savings could be much larger. Critics say Congress will give in to lobbyists and let inefficient providers off the hook(放过). That is far less likely to happen if Congress also adopts strong “pay-go” rules requiring that any increase in payments to providers be offset by new taxes or budge cuts.
  [F]The Senate Finance bill would impose an excise tax(消费税)on health insurance plans that cost more than $8,000 for an individual or $21,000 for a family. It would most likely cause insurers to redesign plans to fall beneath the threshold. Enrollees would have to pay more money for many services out of their own pockets, and that would encourage them to think twice about whether an expensive or redundant test was worth it. Economists project that most employers would shift money from expensive health benefits into wages. The House bill has no similar tax. The final legislation should.
  [G]Any doctor who has wrestled with multiple forms from different insurers, or patients who have tried to understand their own parade of statements, know that simplification ought to save money. When the health insurance industry was still cooperating in reform efforts, its trade group offered to provide standardized forms for automated processing. It estimated that step would save hundreds of billions of dollars over the next decade. The bills would lock that pledge into law.
  [H]The stimulus package provided money to convert the inefficient, paper-driven medical system to electronic records that can be easily viewed and transmitted. This requires open investments to help doctors convert. In time it should help restrain costs by eliminating redundant test, preventing drug interactions, and helping doctors find the best treatments.
  [I]Virtually all experts agree that the fee-for-service system—doctors are rewarded for the quantity of care rather than its quality or effectiveness—is a primary reason that the cost of care is so high. Most agree that the solution is to push doctors to accept fixed payments to care for a particular illness or for a patient's needs over a year. No one knows how to make that happen quickly. The bills in both houses would start pilot projects within Medicare. They include such measures as accountable care organizations to take charge of a patient's needs with an eye on both cost and quality, and chronic disease management to make sure the seriously ill, who are responsible for the bulk of all health care costs, are treated properly. For the most part, these experiments rely on incentive payments to get doctors to try them.
  [J]Testing innovations do no good unless the good experiments are identified and expanded and the bad ones are dropped. The Senate bill would create an independent commission to monitor the pilot programs and recommend changes in Medicare's payment policies to urge providers to adopt reforms that work. The changes would have to be approved or rejected as a whole by Congress, making it hard for narrow-interest lobbies to bend lawmakers to their will.
  [K]The bills in both chambers would create health insurance exchanges on which small businesses and individuals could choose from an array of private plans and possibly a public option. All the plans would have to provide standard benefit packages that would be easy to compare. To get access to millions of new customers, insures would have a strong incentive to sell on the exchange. And the head-to-head competition might give them a strong incentive to lower their prices, perhaps by accepting slimmer profit margins or demanding better deals from providers.
  [L]The final legislation might throw a public plan into the competition, but thanks to the fierce opposition of the insurance industry and Republican critics, it might not save much money. The one in the House bill would have to negotiate rates with providers, rather than using Medicare rates, as many reformers wanted.
  [M]The president's stimulus package is pumping money into research to compare how well various treatments work. Is surgery, radiation or careful monitoring best for prostate(前列腺)cancer? Is the latest and most expensive cholesterol-lowering drug any better than its common competitors? The pending bills would spend additional money to accelerate this effort.
  [N]Critics have charged that this sensible idea would lead to rationing of care. (That would be true only if you believe that patients should have an unrestrained right to treatments proven to be inferior.) As a result, the bills do not require, as they should, that the results of these studies be used to set payment rates in Medicare.
  [O]Congress needs to find the courage to allow Medicare to pay preferentially for treatments proven to be superior. Sometimes the best treatment might be the most expensive. But overall, we suspect that spending would come down through elimination of a lot of unnecessary or even dangerous tests and treatments.
  [P]The House bill would authorize the secretary of health and human services to negotiate drug prices in Medicare and Medicaid. Some authoritative analysts doubt that the secretary would get better deals than private insurers already get. We believe negotiation could work. It does in other countries.
  [Q] Missing from these bills is any serious attempt to rein in malpractice costs. Malpractice awards do drive up insurance premiums for doctors in high-risk specialties, and there is some evidence doctors engage in “defensive medicine” by performing tests and treatments primarily to prove they are not negligent should they get sued.
1.[选词填空]It is not easy to curb the rising medical costs in America.
    • 解题思路:【译文】美国医疗成本的上涨难以控制。
      【定位解析】根据题目关键词 not easy 和 the rising medical costs 可査找到 A 段第 3 句。该句指出,根本就不存在一个方案能够轻易地控制医疗成本的增加。题目中的 not easy 是对原文 no one has an easy fix的同义转述,故答案为 A 段。
    2.[选词填空]The high cost of medical services and unnecessary tests and treatments have driven up medical expenses.
      • 解题思路:【译文】医疗服务的成本过高以及不必要的试验和诊疗推动医疗费用的上涨。
        【定位解析】根据题目关键词 high cost,unnecessary tests and treatments 和 driven up 定位到 C 段。本段指出,医疗费增长快的主要原因是医疗服务收费过高以及医院和医生会给病人安排多余的诊疗项目。题目中的 high cost 对应原文的 high prices, unnecessary tests and treatments 是对原文 unnecessary care delivered... perform a lot more tests and treatments 的概括,而 driven up 对应文中的 rises,所以答案为 C 段。

      3.[选词填空]Changes in policy would be approved or rejected as a whole so that lobbyists would find it hard to influence lawmakers.
        • 解题思路:【译文】国会将通过或者否决全部的改革措施,这样说客就很难对立法者产生影响。
          【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Changes,be approved or rejected as a whole 和 lawmakers 査找到 J段最后一句。该句指出,国会只能通过或者否决全部的改革措施,这样一来,狭隘的利益游说集团将很难迫使立法者顺从他们的意愿。本题复现了原词 changes 及 be approved or rejected as a whole,题目中的influence lawmakers 是对原文 bend lawmakers to their will 的同义转述,故答案为 J 段。

        4.[选词填空]One main factor that has driven up medical expenses is that doctors are compensated for the amount of care rather than its effect.
          • 解题思路:【译文】导致医疗成本增加的一个主要因素是医生是按提供诊疗的次数而非诊疗的效果收费。
            【定位解析】根据题目关键词 main factor, the amount of care 和 effect 定位至 I 段第 1 句。该句指出,医生的收入取决于提供服务的次数而非服务的质量或者效果,这是医疗成本如此之高的主要原因。题目中main factor 与文中的 primary reason 同义,the amount 对应原文的 the quantity,而 effect 对应文中的 effectiveness,故答案为 I 段。

          5.[选词填空]Conversion of paper to electronic medical records will help eliminate redundant tests and prevent drug interactions.
            • 解题思路:【译文】把纸质病历转换为电子医疗记录可以帮助筛除不必要的检查,防止药物相互作用。
              【定位解析】根据题目关键词 electronic records,redundant tests 和 drug interactions 定位到 H段。该段最后一句指出,电子医疗记录将能筛除不必要的检查、防止药物相互作用、帮助医生确定最佳治疗方案,以实现节省成本。题目中的 conversion 对应了原文的 convert,故答案为 H 段。
            6.[选词填空]With a tax imposed on expensive health insurance plans, most employers will likely transfer money from health expenses into wages.
              • 解题思路:【译文】昂贵的医保计划会被征税,因此大多数雇主可能会将用在医保上的支出转移到工资上来。
                【定位解析】根据题目关键词 tax,health insurance plans, money 和 wages 定位到 F 段。该段倒数第 3 句指出,经济学家预计,大多数雇主会将用在医保上的支出转移到工资上来。题目中的 transfer money是原文 shift money 的同义转述,expensive health insurance plans 与原文 expensive healthbenefits 对应,同时题目复现了原文的 wages 一词,故答案为 F 段。

              7.[选词填空]Standardization of forms for automatic processing will save a lot of medical expenses.
                • 解题思路:【译文】标准的自动化处理流程可以帮助节省一大笔医疗开支。
                  【定位解析】根据题目关键词 standardization of forms for automatic processing 定位至 G 段。该段第 2、3 句提到,其行业集团曾主动为自动化处理流程提供标准化的表格。该举措能在未来十年里节省上千亿美元。题目是对原文这两句的同义概括,故 G 段为答案。

                8.[选词填空]Contrary to analysts' doubts, the author believes drug prices may be lowered through negotiation。
                  • 解题思路:【译文】与一些分析人士的怀疑态度不同,作者认为能通过谈判降低药品价格。
                    【定位解析】根据题目关键词 analysts' doubts 和 negotiation 定位至 P 段。该段第 2、3 句指出,一些权威的分析人士质疑部长能达成比私人保险公司更好的协议,但是作者表示相信谈判能取得成效。题目中的 analysts' doubts 是对原文 analysts doubt that the secretary... already get 的概括,故正确答案为 P 段。
                  9.[选词填空]Republicans and insurance industry are strongly opposed to the creation of a public insurance plan.
                    • 解题思路:【译文】共和党和保险行业强烈反对设立公共医保计划。
                      【定位解析】根据题目关键词 republicans and the insurance industry,strongly opposed 和 public insurance plan 定位到 L 段第 1 句。该句指出,由于保险行业和共和党批评者的强烈反对,这个计划可能无法节省太多的钱。题目复现了原词 insurance industry 和 public plan,而 strongly opposed 是对原文 fierce opposition 的同义转述,故 L 段为答案。

                    10.[选词填空]Fair competition might create a strong incentive for insurers to charge less.
                      • 解题思路:【译文】公平竞争会促使保险公司降低产品定价。
                        【定位解析】根据题目关键词 a strong incentive 和 insurers 定位到 K 段。该段最后一句指出,这种正面交锋会促使医保公司降低自家保险产品的定价。题目中的 charge less 是对原文 lower their prices 的同义转述,故 K 段为正确答案。
                      大学英语六级在线题库
                      • 参考答案:A,C,J,I,H,F,G,P,L,K
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