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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
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A) Architecture is the art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for practical and symbolic purposes.Because architecture grows out of human needs and aspirations, it clearly communicates cultural values.Of all the visual arts, architecture affects our lives most directly for it determines the character of the human environment in major ways. 
B) Architecture is a three-dimensional form.It utilizes space, mass, texture, line, light, and color.To be architecture, a building must achieve a working harmony with a variety of elements.Humans instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life.It is the work of architects to create buildings that are not simply constructions but also offer inspiration and delight.Buildings contribute to human life when they provide shelter, enrich space, complement their site, suit the climate, and are economically feasible.The client who pays for the building and defines its function is an important member of the architectural team.The mediocre design of many contemporary buildings can be traced to both clients and architects. 
C) In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since peoplefirst discovered them--even while building materials have changed dramatically.The world's architectural structures have also been devised in relation to the objective limitations of materials.Structures can be analyzed in terms of how they deal with downward forces created by gravity.They are designed to withstand the forces of compression (pushing together), tension (pulling apart), bending, or a combination of these in different parts of the structure. 
D) Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes.Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architectural structures.In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick.Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired.Enormous changes in materials and techniques of con- struction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material.Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago. 
E) Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body: a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, equipment, similar to the body's vital organs and systems.The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning.Of course in early architecturesuch as igloos and adobe structuresthere was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one. 
F) Much of the world's great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence, and availability.In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon. 
Some of the world's finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru.The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above.A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created.That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. 
G) The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures.Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone.As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam.It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch.The arch is among the many importan! structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries. 
H) The great 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function".While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility"."Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural. 
I) Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences.Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development."
J) To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary ; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality. 
K) Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology. 
L) In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. 
M) To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating,cooling, water and waste management and lighting. 
N) Early Asian writings on architecture include the Kao Gong Ji of China from the 7th--5th centuries BCE;the Vaastu Shastra of ancient India and Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra of Sri Lanka. 
O) Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, incorporating architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium, but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society.Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and the Indian Sub-con-tinent.The widespread application of the pointed arch was to influence European architecture of the Medieval period. 

1.[选词填空]in the late 20th century, the consideration of sustainability was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function.
    • 解题思路:根据late 20th century定位到L段,原句的主语是a new concept,这个句式中,主语被替换成了the consideration of sustainability。
    2.[选词填空]Structures are designed to withstand the forces of compression ( pushing together), tension ( pulling apart), bending, or a combination of these in different parts of the structure.
      • 解题思路:根据两个括号和里面的内容pushing together.pulling apart定位到C段最后一句,发现原句的主语是they,这里的主语是structures,通过阅读该句之前的一句,发现they指代的就是structures。
      3.[选词填空]A good deal of graceful architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence,and availability.
        • 解题思路:根据beauty,permanence and availability定位到F段第一句,这里把much of the world’S great替换成了a good deal of graceful。
        4.[选词填空]Materials and methods of construction are inseparable parts of the design of architectural structures.
          • 解题思路:根据Materials and methods定位到D段第二句,这里把internal替换成了inseparable。
          5.[选词填空]The famous modern architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function".
            • 解题思路:H)定位转换题。根据Louis Sullivan 定位到H段第一句,其中的great.19th.century architect分别被替换成famous,modern。
            6.[选词填空]The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures.
              • 解题思路:从Romans和Mediterranean定位到G段第一句。
              7.[选词填空]When it comes to the origin of architecture, humans instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life.
                • 解题思路:根据instinctively seek structures定位到B段第三句,这里只是在原句的基础上加上了when it comes to the origin of architecture。
                8.[选词填空]According to Nunzia Rondanini, architecture can, in a particular way, stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.
                  • 解题思路:I)定位转换题。根据人名NunziaRondanini定位到I段,这里的through its own particular way of expressing values被替换成了in a particular way,并且用双逗号隔离,以后在处理这种题目时.直接把双逗号之间的内容去掉,以帮助理解。
                  9.[选词填空]Environmentally friendly style building should be constructed to satisfy the contemporary ethos.
                    • 解题思路:根据contemporary ethos定位到M段第一句,这里对句式作了调整。句子的主语从a building变成了environmentally friendly style building。
                    10.[选词填空]The art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for practical and symbolic purposes could be called as architecture.
                      • 解题思路:根据science of designing structures定位到A段第一句,发现原句的主语是architecture,这里的句意和原句一致,只是将architecture放在了句尾,采用了新的句式。
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                      • 参考答案:L,C,F,D,H,G,B,I,M,A
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