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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
The Recorded World

    As cameras become ubiquitous(普遍存在的.and able to identify people,more safeguards on privacy will be needed. 

A. “This season there is something at the seaside worse than sharks,”declared a newspaper in 1890.“It is the amateur photographer.”The invention of the handheld camera shocked the 19th—century society,as did the“Kodak fiends”(柯达狂人.who patrolled beaches snapping sunbathers. 
B. More than a century later,amateur photography is once more a troubling issue.Citizens of rich countries have got used to being watched by closed.circuit cameras that guard roads and cities.But as cameras shrink and the cost of storing data falls sharply,it is individuals who are taking the pictures. 
C. Some 10,000 people are already testing a prototype of Google Glass,a miniature computer worn like eveglasses.It aims to have all the functions of a smartphone in a device put on a person’s nose.Its flexible frame holds both a camera and a tiny screen,and makes it easy for users to take photos,send messages and search for things online. 
D. Glass may fail,but a wider revolution is under way.In Russia,where insurance fraud is commonly seen,at least l million cars already have cameras on their dashboards(仪表盘.that film the road ahead.Police forces in America are starting to issue officers with video cameras,pinned to their uniforms,which record their 
interactions with the public.Collar—cams help anxious cat—lovers watch their wandering pets carefully. Paparazzi(狗仔队.have started to use drones to photograph celebrities in their gardens or on yachts. Hobbyists are even devising clever ways to get cameras into space. 
E. Ubiquitous recording can already do a lot of good.Some patients with brain injuries have been given cameras:looking back at images can help them recover their memories.Dash—cams can help resolve insurance claims and encourage people to drive better.Police—cams can discourage criminals from making groundless complaints against police officers and officers from abusing criminals.A British soldier has just been convicted of murdering a wounded Afghan because the act was captured by a colleague’s helmet—camera. Videos showing the line of sight of experienced surgeons and engineers can help train their successors and be used in liability disputes.Lenses linked to computers are reading street—sign sand product labels to partially sighted people. 
F. Optimists see broader benefits ahead.Plenty of people carry activity trackers,worn on the wrist or placed in a pocket,to monitor their exercise or sleep patterns;cameras could do the job more effectively,perhaps also spying on their wearers’diets.“Personal black boxes’’might be able to transmit pictures if their owner falls victim to an accident or crime.Tiny cameras trained to recognise faces could become personal digital assistants,making conversations as searchable as documents and e—mails.Already a small band of“life. logger(生活记录器)stored years off ootage(镜头.into databases of“e—memories”. 
G. Not everybody will be thrilled by these prospects.A perfect digital memory would probably be a pain, preserving unhappy events as well as cherished ones.Suspicious spouses and employers might feel entitled to review it. 
H.The bigger worry is for those in front of the cameras,not behind them.School bullies already use illegal snaps from mobile phones to embarrass their victims.The web is full of secret photos of women,snapped in public places.Wearable cameras will make such immoral photography easier.And the huge,looming issue is the    growing sophistication of face-recognition technologies,which are starting to enable businesses and governments to get information about individuals by searching the billions of images online.The combination of cameras everywhere---in bars,on streets,in offices,on people’s heads--with the algorithms(算法.run by social networks and other service providers that process stored and published images is a powerful and alarming one.We may not be far from a world in which your movements could be tracked all the time.where a stranger walking down the street can immediately identify exactly who you are. 
I. Well,we still strongly held beliefs that technological progress should generally be welcomed.not feared runs up against an even deeper impulse,in favour of liberty.Freedom has to include some fight to privacy:if every move you make is being recorded,liberty is limited. 
J. One option is to ban devices that seem annoying.The use of dashboard cameras is forbidden in Austria. Drivers who film the road can face a €10,000($13,400.fine.But banning devices deprives people of their benefits.Society would do better to develop rules about where and how these technologies can be used,just as it learned to cope with the Kodak fiends. 
K. For the moment,companies are behaving in a cautious way.Google has banned the use of face—recognition in apps on Glass and its camera is designed to film only in short bursts.Japanese digital camera.makers ensure their products emit a shutter sound every time a picture is taken.Existing laws to control stalking of harassment can be extended to deal with peeping drones. 
L. Still,as cameras become smaller,more powerful and ubiquitous,new laws may be needed to Dreserve liberty. Governments should be granted the right to use face—recognition technology only where there is a clear public good(identifying a bank robber for instance..When the would.be identifiers are companies or strangers in the street,the starting—point should be that you have the right not to have your identity automatically revealed.The principle is the same as for personal data.Just as Facebook and Google should be forced to establish high default settings(默认系统设置.for privacy(which can be reduced at the user's request.,the new cameras and recognition technologies should be regulated so as to let you decide whether you remain anonymous(匿名的.or not. 
M. Silicon Valley emphasises the liberating power of technology--and it is often fight.But the freedom that a small device gives one person can sometimes take away liberty from another.Liberal politicians have been lazy about defending the idea of personal space,especially online.The fight should start now.Otherwise,in the blink of an eye,privacy could be gone. 
1.[选词填空]Google Glass has a flexible frame which carries both a camera and a tiny screen.
    • 解题思路:题干意为,谷歌眼镜有着灵活的框架,上面配有一个摄像头和一个很小的屏幕。根据题干中的关 键信息Google Glass、flexible frame、both a camera and a tiny screen,可以很快锁定文章中的C段。C段最后一句提到,它(谷歌眼镜.的框架非常灵活,上面配有一个摄像头和一块小屏幕,这使得用户可以轻松地拍照、发送信息和进行在线搜索。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为C。
    2.[选词填空]Face—recognition technology mustn’t be used by governments unless it will do good to the public.
      • 解题思路:题干意为,除非对公众有益,否则各国政府禁止使用人脸识别技术。注意抓住题干中的关键信息face-recognition technology、governments、public。L段提到,各国政府应该确保,只有为了明确的公共利益时(比如识别银行抢劫犯.,才有权使用人脸识别技术。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为L。
      3.[选词填空]We believe that technological progress should not run up against liberty.
        • 解题思路:题干意为,我们相信技术进步不应该与自由背道而驰。注意抓住题干中的关键信息technological progress、run up against、liberty。I段提到,我们仍然坚信,技术进步总体上应该受到欢迎,而不是引起恐慌一这与支持自由这一更深层次的冲动相冲突。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为I。
        4.[选词填空]Individuals began to use cameras to take photos with their size becoming smaller and the cost of storing data declining.
          • 解题思路:题干意为,随着摄像机的体积变小以及储存数据的成本降低,个人开始用摄像机拍照。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Individuals、their size becoming smaller、the cost of storing data declining。B段最后一句提到。但随着摄像机变得更为小巧,而且存储数据的成本骤降,它逐渐被用于个人拍摄。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。
          5.[选词填空]The amateur photographer was once claimed worse than sharks at the seaside.
            • 解题思路:题干意为,曾经有人声称,海边的业余摄影师比鲨鱼还可怕。注意抓住题干中的关键信息amateur photographer、worse than sharks、at the seaside。A段开头提到,在1890年,一份报纸宣称:“这个季节,海边出现了一种比鲨鱼还可怕的东西,那就是业余摄影师。”由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。
            6.[选词填空]Society should do it in a better way to regulate technologies about where and how they can be used.
              • 解题思路:题干意为,社会在规范这些技术方面可以做得更好,比如它们用在何处,如何使用。注意抓住题干中的关键信息technologies、where and how。J段提到,社会应该制定出更完善的规则,明确指出这些技术可以在何处及如何使用。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。
              7.[选词填空]The bigger worry comes from those being recorded,not from the ones who hold the cameras.
                • 解题思路:题干意为,更大的忧虑来自被拍摄的人,而不是手持摄像机的人。根据题干中的关键信息The bigger worry.可以很快锁定文章中的H段。H段开头提到,镜头前的人比镜头后的人有更多的担忧。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。

                Optimists predict that cameras will have more benefits in the future. 

                  • 解题思路:题干意为,乐观主义者预测,摄像机在未来会有更多的益处。根据题干中的关键信息Optimists和benefits.可以很快锁定文章中的F段。F段开头提到,乐观主义者预见到了摄像机在未来更广泛的益处。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F。
                  9.[选词填空]Liberal politicians should waste no time defending privacy,or it could be gone quickly.
                    • 解题思路:题干意为,自由派政治人士应该立即捍卫隐私,否则它很快就荡然无存了。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Liberal politicians、privacy、could begone。M段后半部分提到,自声派政治人士一直懒于捍卫个人空间这一理念,尤其是网络个人空间。(保护隐私的.战争该打响了。否则,转瞬之间,个人隐私可能就荡然无存了。题干正是对这几句话的概括,因此答案为M。
                    10.[选词填空]A British soldier’s act of killing a wounded Afghan was recorded by his coworker’s helmet-camera.
                      • 解题思路:题干意为,一名英国士兵杀害一位受伤的阿富汗人的行为被其同事头盔上的摄像头记录了下来。注意抓住题干中的关键信息British soldier、a wounded Afghan、helmet—camera。文中E段中间部分提到,一名英国士兵最近被判谋杀一名受伤的阿富汗人,因为其行为被其同事头盔上的摄像机拍了下来。由此可知。题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。
                      • 参考答案:C,L,I,B,K,J,H,K,M,E
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